This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the various ways in which poverty can affect families, and lays out the intergenerational model Economic Mobility Pathways (EMPath) has developed to combat these effects. The stresses of poverty affect families at three interacting levels:

• The Outcomes Level: Poverty affects families’ educational, career, health, and financial outcomes. These effects are intergenerational: parents’ and their children’s outcomes impact each other.

• The Inner-Self Level: Poverty affects families’ development of specific skills and mindsets necessary for navigating the complex path out of poverty: namely, self-regulation skills and the sense of self. These effects are also intergenerational: these skills and mindsets are developed in the context of the family, and each family member’s skills and mindsets can impact others in the family.

• The Family Level: Poverty affects families’ relationships, communication, and alignment (but not bonds). Poverty can be isolating for individuals, making it more difficult for them to consider themselves in the context of their families.

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